Advances in recycling and utilization of agricultural wastes

Team : GOLDEN DULCE (B.Voc - Agriculture- First year /Group 2)

With the development of agriculture in India, the productions of agricultural wastes increase rapidly. The occurrence of agricultural wastes was unique in the different areas. The agricultural straw and livestock excrement are considered to be potential resources. Improper disposition of agricultural wastes not only result in environmental pollution, but also waste a lot of valuable biomass resources. The recycling and utilization of agricultural wastes are considered to be the important step in environmental protection, energy structure and agricultural development. However, the problem in India’s current agricultural waste recycling impeded the achievement of scale ecological functions. The objectives of this study were to illuminate the potential environmental risk, recycling and utilization pathway, influencing factors and policy suggestions in the recycling and utilization progress of agricultural wastes. The survey provided the development mode of industrialization and scale of agricultural waste recycling. The recycling and utilization pathway of agricultural wastes were also analyzed. The crucial suggestions were proposed, such as cultivating new industry, building economy incentive standard, improving laws and regulations, and creating rural market strengthening medium and long-term plans of agricultural waste recycling. The resource consumption, ecological crisis and other issues caused by agricultural wastes were evaluated. It will provide more comprehensive fundamental information for the recycling and utilization of agricultural wastes during the modernization and urbanization of India.

Recycling and utilization pathway of agricultural wastes

The recycling and utilization pathway of agricultural wastes were analyzed. There were problems existing in the utilization process of agricultural wastes in India, which included the large quantity and unknown amount of agricultural wastes. The disposal and utilization problems focus on the agricultural wastes, backwardness of techniques, lags of agricultural automation, belated policies and social service systems in agricultural waste utilization. Straw and manure are raw material resources owing to the rich in nutrients. Burning straw in fields can make 30% of potassium to be only reused, whereas other nutrients rich, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, organic matter and heat, will run off. The results indicated that agricultural wastes were utilized in the traditional measures with the low utilization efficiency. However, in modern agronomic process, the small-scale recycling utilization could not afford the amounts of agricultural waste produced rapidly. In the pre-experiment , rice nursery media is formulated by using pig manure, cow excrement, mushroom compost and inorganic minerals. The results showed that the basic media made of 55% organic fertilizers and 45% inorganic minerals for rice seedling growth were more suitable than 100% of pig manure, cow excrement, mushroom compost and inorganic minerals alone.

Among media, the medium made of 35% pig manure, 20% cow excrement, 30% vermiculite and 15% perlite, gained the highest biomass and evenness. The seedling quality in media made of 60-70% organic fertilizer was better than the tested commercial media contained more than 80% organic fertilizer. The seedling quality in the media A and B were better than the other media. The media A was made of 30% pig manure, 30% cow excrement, 30% vermiculite and 10% perlite, whereas the media B, which was made of 20% pig manure, 30% cow excrement, 20% vinegar residue compost, 20% vermiculite and 10% perlite. Nitro-humic acid and calcium superphosphate were added into nursery media, respectively. Seedling growth in the media with nitro-humic acid was better than that in the media with calcium superphosphate. Besides, water holding porosity and electric conductivity were well correlated with shoot biomass. The status, as a key indicator, could evaluate the quality of nursery medium which was consisted of the agricultural waste compost. The nonpoint pollution also caused by some big and medium livestock farms. The results showed that the farmers’ technical efficiency still has a large space to be promoted. The scale efficiency is also the major cause. The technique, cost and benefits of the waste recourses were still the main problems unsolved. A series of measures were put forward

1) To establish and improve a lot of policies, laws and regulations related to the resourceful utilization and harmless disposal of agricultural wastes,

2) To increase the financial support from different channels and strengthen construction of basic infrastructures in agricultural waste utilization process by building a new countryside,

3) To push forward the industrialization of agricultural waste utilization in order to develop circular economy,

4) To promote the innovative research, demonstration and extension of utilization technologies.

The theory of agriculture waste logistics combined with cyclic economy was explained. The innovations make an ideal partly into the reality via necessary conditions, such as compulsory regulation and policy support, however, it had still be not yet available. Except technical and institutional innovations, the financial subsidies and compulsory regulations should be explored. The recycling mode of agricultural wastes has been taking shape, whereas the development and operation mechanism are not clear. Based on the mode, the concept and detailed operation mechanism of the agricultural waste recycling mode were proposed. They were consisted of the incentive, dynamic, investment and balance mechanism. Therefore, the connotation and operation mechanism must be expounded. Many crucial suggestions were proposed, such as cultivating new industry, building economy incentive standard, improving laws and regulations, and creating rural market strengthening medium and long-term plans of agricultural waste recycling.

In fact, the majority of farmers are willing to participate in agricultural waste recycling with a profound understanding on waste resource value and potential, especially the economic and ecological value. In recent years, agricultural waste recycling related concepts have widely spread in countryside with diversified information sources. Manure and agricultural wastes showed that crop straw were mainly used as feed, fertilizer and energy, whereas the manure is mostly used as fertilizer. The phenomena of agricultural waste burning, burying or even discard were common, and only a small amount of crop straw were used into energy processing. However, they are failure owing to the influence of policy environment, economic power, technology and other factors. The major factors have been investigated, such as centralized waste treatment facility, farmers’ cooperative organizations and the distance to fairs or markets. Moreover, the industry degree could also have a significant negative impact.

Conclusion

The amount of agricultural straw and animal waste in India increased steadily. The occurrence of agricultural wastes was unique in the different areas. The agricultural straw and livestock excrement are considered to be potential resources. However, the potential environmental risk of agricultural waste in India can be evaluated by the amounts, distribution characteristics and sources of agricultural straws, animal excrement and so on. The input and output system should be built to illuminate the conversion efficiency of agricultural waste utilization. The problem in India’s current agricultural waste recycling impeded the achievement of scale ecological functions. The technical efficiency still has a large space to be promoted. Besides, the technique, cost and benefits of the waste resources were still the main problems unsolved. The small-scale recycling utilization could not afford the amounts of agricultural waste produced rapidly in modern agronomic process. The crucial suggestions were proposed, such as cultivating new industry, building economy incentive standard, improving laws and regulations, and creating rural market strengthening medium and long-term plans of agricultural waste recycling. The influencing factors on the recycling and utilization of agricultural wastes had become the difficult problem in most countries. Besides, the recycling and utilization policy of agricultural wastes should be improved via government attention.