MILK – A COMPLETE FOOD AND IT’S NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS

TEAM (D): JWALA (DAIRY TECHNOLOGY)

Hello Everyone, During this Lockdown period, hope all are good at home. here we come up with the most interesting topic called milk - a complete food and its nutritional aspects, why we have chosen this topic ?..... because every person morning starts with milk and night ends up with drinking milk. so milk plays an important role in our daily life.


Have you ever wondered which food product is best to consume?.

Which food contains all the essential nutrients??..

Which food is best for all age groups???...


Well, here is the answer to all your questions and that is “MILK”.


When man changed from a nomadic hunter to a settler and adopted farming, one of the turning points was the domestication of cattle. He found that he could rear cattle quite easily and get benefit from the copious flow of milk, which is remarkably compatible with the needs of humans.


WHAT IS MILK?..

According to Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (2011), “Milk may be defined as a whole, clean and fresh lacteal secretion obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy milch animals excluding that which is obtained 15 days before or 5 days after calving or such period as may be necessary to render it practically colostrum-free. It should contain the minimum prescribed percentages of milk fat and milk-solids-non-fat”.


WHY MILK IS COMPLETE FOOD?

  • Rich source of essential nutrients like Fats, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Vitamins, Minerals etc. in a well proportional and balanced form so it is a very tasty and acceptable by all consumers.

  • The preferred food for all age groups.

  • Easily digestible food product.

  • Relieves stress.

  • Helps in maintaining healthy teeth and bones.

  • Renders growth and repair of muscle tissue.

  • Reduces Dehydration.

  • Improves radiance of the skin.

  • Improves body metabolism.

  • Improves immunity to fight against diseases.


NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS OF MILK

All living beings require food for their growth, the supply of energy, maintenance and recovery from diseases and for reproduction. These requirements are met from varied sources all of which contribute to the diet depending on their nutritive value. In this context, Milk is a major source of dietary energy, high-quality protein and fat. It can make a significant attempt to meet the required nutrient intakes of calcium, magnesium, selenium, riboflavin, Vitamin B12 and pantothenic acid etc. Milk from some animal species can also be a source of zinc and Vitamins A, C, D and B6. Bioavailability of some nutrients in milk, for example, calcium, is high in milk compared with other foods in the diet.


POWERFUL PROTEINS: CASEIN AND WHEY PROTEINS

Milk is made up of approximately 3.3% protein and contains all of the essential amino acids. Milk protein is mainly made up of casein and whey protein in the ratio of 80:20 in bovine milk. Milk is a rich and ready source for the essential amino acids (supplied through the diet). Milk protein has an excellent supplementary value for blending with other foods to increase their nutritive value and value addition. Milk protein has an excellent buffering effect and consequently is a very good remedy for excessive stomach acidity. Dairy products are, therefore, used in dietetic therapy of patients suffering from gastritis and stomach ulcers.

Whey proteins are used as a protein source in high protein beverages and energy bars targeted to athletes. The biological value of milk protein is 90 (cow's milk). Higher biological value (B.V defined as the Proteins in grams, absorbed from 100 gm of protein) of milk protein is obtained when combined with potato and rice or maize protein.


FABULOUS FAT :

Milk fat is a very rich source of energy, providing up to 9 kilocalories per gram. The fatty acids in milk-fat are approximately 65% saturated, 29% monounsaturated, and 6% polyunsaturated. The polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk fat include small amounts of the essential fatty acids like linoleic and linolenic and approximately 5% trans fatty acids.

Nearly 99 per cent of milk fat is in the form of triglycerides. Apart from directly contributing to nutrition, milk fat plays a secondary role, the pleasant flavour imparted to foods containing milk fat greatly enhances their palatability and acceptance leading to increased consumption. Milk fat, therefore, is widely used in a variety of foods as a frying medium. Consequently, it is the costliest component of milk.


CARING CARBOHYDRATE: LACTOSE

The predominant milk sugar is Lactose. Apart from providing a ready source of energy, Lactose adds to the taste of milk – the sweetness it imparts to milk greatly enhances its taste and palatability.

Lactose takes a longer time than other sugars for ingestion in the stomach. This increased residence time