MUSHROOM CULTIVATION

Team : AGRI CHALLENGERS (b.voc agri / 4th sem)

Introduction

Mushrooms :

  1. A mushroom is the fleshy , spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus , typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.

  2. The word “Mushroom” is most often applied to those fungi that have a stem , a cap , and gills on the underside of the cup.

  3. These gills produce microscopic spores that help the fungus spread across the ground or its occupant surface.

  4. Their spores , called basidiospores

  5. These lack chlorophyll and live on dead organic matter and hence are saprophytic

  6. As the egg expands, the universal veil ruptures and many remain as a cup, or volva, at the base of the stalk,Cap like structure is known as pileus, attached with thread like structure mycelia.

Nutritional Value and Medicinal Value

  • Protein- most mushrooms have a high protein content, usually around 20-30% by dry weight.

  • Fiber- Helps lower cholesterol and is important for the digestive system.

  • Vitamin D - Essential for the absorption of calcium.

  • Copper - Aids in helping the body absorb oxygen and create red blood cells.

  • Selenium- an antioxidant that helps neutralize free radicals, thus preventing cell damage and reducing the risk of cancer and other diseases.

  • Low levels of fat, calories, sodium , carbohydrates content

  • No cholestrol

Types of Mushrooms : Edible and Poisonous Mushrooms

EDIBLE MUSHROOMS :

  • Edible mushrooms are consumed by humans for their nutritional value and they are occasionally consumed for their supposed medicinal value.

  • Edibility may be defined by criteria that include absence of poisonous effects on humans and desirable taste and aroma.

  • Edible Mushrooms include many fungal species that are either harvested wild or cultivated

  • Edible Mushrooms are consumed for their nutritional value and they are occasionally consumed for their supposed medicinal value.

POISONOUS MUSHROOMS :

  • Poisonous mushrooms look like edible mushroom in their morphology and life cycle. However they can be distinguished by following features :

  • Brightly coloured fruit bodies.

  • Greenish tinge on gills and yellow-green spores.

  • Pink coloured spores in gills.

  • Presence of Vulva and annuals on the stalk.

  • Oozing of milky or coloured latex at damaged portions.

  • Unpleasant odour.

Requirements :

  • Spawn

  • Paddy straw / saw dust of rubber

  • Polythene sheet

  • Polythene bag

  • Pottasium permanganate / spirit/ dettol

Spawn Production :

To start growing mushrooms you need to buy the spores. The spores shown below have been grown on a corn cob. One “ bottle” of spore can be used for 2 sacks . The spores on the right have been broken into 8 pieces.

Cultivation :

Step 1 :

  • Preparing the straw you will need sterilized straw.

  • Sterilized straw will ensure all other fungi spores are killed.

  • To sterilize straw, boil it in water for half an hour.

  • Squeeze water out of the straw.

  • The straw has to be 60% moist i.e. When you squeeze the straw , no water should be wrung out. The straw is ready to use.

Step 2 :

  • Preparing the bag start packing the straw into the plastic bag of approximate dimensions 12*24 inches.

  • Fill in two inches of straw.

  • Crumble one chunk of the spore on top of the straw along the edges.

  • Spores grow out from the sides of the bag, so it is important to distribute the spor