Vertical farming is the practice of growing crops in vertically stacked layers. If often incorporates controlled- environment agriculture, which aims to optimize plant growth and Soil less farming techniques such as hydroponics, aquaponics and aeroponics. Some common choices of Structure house Vertical farming systems include building, shipping containers, tunnels, and abandoned mine shafts.
The choices of vertical farming were proposed by Dickson Despommier professor of public and Environmental Health at Columbia University in 1999. The main advantage of Vertical farming is Increased crop yield that comes with a smaller unit area of land requirement.
Vertical farms also face large energy demands due to the use of supplementary lights like LED'S.
Vertical farming allows us to grow pesticides free and organic crops. It uses less water because, production is indoors and it need virtually no herbicides and pesticides. Vertical farming includes three types. They are Building based Vertical farming, Shipping container vertical farming and Deep Vertical farming.
In India, Vertical farming has been introduced. Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) experts are working on the concept of vertical farming in soil-less conditions, In which food crops can be grown even on multi-storeyed buildings in metros like New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai without using Soil or pesticides.
Resources : https://en.m.wikipedia.org.