VITICULTURE

Team: Garden makers


Introduction:

Viticulture as a science and pursuit,has existed as long as humans have been making and drinking wine.the most common grape wine, Vitis vinifera has been cultivated and fermented by humans since at least the Neolithic era. The Greek historian Thucydides observed that the civilization in the Mediterranean coincided with the cultivation of grapes.the Romans developed the use of stakes for grape growing as opposed to using trees.

What is viticulture:

Viticulture is the scientific study of grapes,most often with a focus on growth and production. When the grapes are being used specifically for wine production,the study of grapes can also be called viniculture.both viniculture and viticulture fall under the umbrella of horticulture.

Where do grapes grow:

The majority of vineyards and wine growers can be found between the 30th and 50th parallel in each hemisphere. Major wines producing localities include France, Italy, Spain, Germany, South Africa, California.

France: The France are perhaps the most famous viticulturalists in the world. The red wines of Bordeaux are to the sparkling white wine of the champagne region.

Italy: The Italian peninsula has played host to viticulture since the days of the roman empire.they produces quality wine of many different varieties.

Spain: Spain has a rich wine making history which stretches back centuries. They producing full-bodied red wines, including tempranillo.

Germany: Germany wine grapes are grown largely along the banks of the river Rhine.

South Africa: South Africa has been producing wine since the mid 1600s. The climate of South Africa is very smaller to Mediterranean.

California: Viticulture in California dates back to the 18th century when Spanish missionaries planted the 1st grape wine. California wine are now amongst the most respected in the world.

Grape cultivation in india has been commercially taken up under a wide range of soil and climatic conditions. while there are 3 districts regions, eg., temperate (J.K and H.E), sub-tropical (Punjab, Hariyana, Rajasthan and Western Up) and tropical (Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil nadu and Andhra Pradesh), nearly 94% of the area falls in the tropical region. The current areas and production under grape is estimated at 16,200 ha with an annual production of 1,546,300 tannes. Maharashtra accounts for more than 80% of the total production. Desetite doutes of success of viticulture in tropical regions,this region has resulted in world's highest productivity in spite of numerous adversities for the normal growth and productivity of vines. Their has been a continuous shift in grape varieties commercially grown in different regions.

While in the sub tropics, yearly ripening variety perlette is grown, thompson seedless, sharad seedless among seedless and Anab-e-shahi, gulabi and banglore blue among seeded varieties are cultivated in Maharashtra and southern states. A number of clones of thompson seedless namely Tas-A-ganesh, sonaka and Manik chanan are also being grown commercially primarily in Maharashtra. while a single crop of grapes can be taken in sub tropics, it is possible to take more than one crop under tropical conditions.the constrained in grape production also vary from region to region. In india, while 78% of grape produce is used for table purposes, nearly 17-20% is dried for raisin production, while the remaining 2% is used for manufacturing of juice and wine.fresh grape export from india are estimated at 35936 tonnes valued at 1106.7 million rupees to markets in 23 countries during 2004-2005.in the same year, India imports 1111.27 tonnes of fresh grapes valued at RS 519.86 lakh.with the high quality grapes meeting international quality standards being produced,india has a good future expand it's fresh grape, raisens and wine industry to meet both the ever increasing domestics demand and expanding export markets particularly in the European union and south asian countries.

Conclusion:

Viticulture is an existing profusion with a long and rich history. Learning about viticulture is valuable for any one trying to expand their knowledge of wine and appreciation for wine making. Wine industry is a multi-billion dollar-a-year industry.


BY TEAM: GARDEN MAKERS (B.voc - Horticulture - second year)

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